RAIDZ1 Unavailable after inadvertent SATA cable swap

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Mar 18, 2016
During a recent change of my hard drive fans I had to remove my hard drive cables. I did not label them and thought that I had reconnected them back the way they were removed but I must not have remembered properly. When I went to turn the system back on it would not boot. After connecting a monitor and keyboard I found that the BIOS was not pointing to the appropriate boot drive (one of the drives I had disconnected is acting as my FreeNAS boot drive while the others are all data drives). In the BIOS setup I simply changed the boot order to place the boot drive at the top of the list and restarted the system. It booted right up, but I had a critical error on the system and it showed that my pool was degraded. When I took a look at zpool status it showed that the drive that was Unavailable had a series of numbers as its ID rather than the other drives which showed gptid like the following 'gptid/38ac7ea1-c584-11e5-a678-00241dce521e'. It is unclear to me as to why this occurred, but I figured that I must still not have the order of the cables correct so I shut down the system again and moved them again. This time the system booted but my pool was offline and unavailable. There are now two drives with what appears to be missing partition information. I would not have guessed this would be an issue with FreeNAS and after a fair amount of reading on these forums I am still unclear as to why my cable swapping would have created this issue, but I am right now just wanting to get my pool back up and available. It's clear now that I should have stopped everything and simply sent in this question before my pool became unavailable, but I am already hesitant running the system as a RaidZ1 (yes I am planning a complete overhaul soon to a RaidZ2 or RaidZ3) and simply wanted to get everything back in order immediately.

My pool is made up of two vdevs. My original of (4x 2TB drives) plus my added (3x 5TB drives). Two of the 5TB are the ones that are currently offline. The pool has been running well in its current state for years. I am currently running FreeNAS-9.10.2-U6 and won't be doing any upgrading until I can build a better system.

Current status of my pool:
zpool import
   pool: ztank
	 id: 10487339118375057665
  state: UNAVAIL
 status: One or more devices are missing from the system.
 action: The pool cannot be imported. Attach the missing
		devices and try again.

		ztank										   UNAVAIL  insufficient replicas
		  raidz1-0									  UNAVAIL  insufficient replicas
			gptid/38ac7ea1-c584-11e5-a678-00241dce521e  ONLINE
			5180206853595741775						 UNAVAIL  cannot open
			6120802147465411546						 UNAVAIL  cannot open
		  raidz1-1									  ONLINE
			gptid/1fd79dd9-3966-11e5-a06c-00241dce521e  ONLINE
			gptid/205fa2dd-3966-11e5-a06c-00241dce521e  ONLINE
			gptid/20f2d89b-3966-11e5-a06c-00241dce521e  ONLINE
			gptid/83dfc093-76ae-11e5-98b1-00241dce521e  ONLINE

The system does still know about the other drives (ada5 and ada6) as seen by camcontrol.
camcontrol devlist
<Hitachi HDS5C3020ALA632 ML6OA180>  at scbus0 target 0 lun 0 (pass0,ada0)
<Hitachi HDS5C3020ALA632 ML6OA580>  at scbus1 target 0 lun 0 (pass1,ada1)
<Hitachi HDS5C3020ALA632 ML6OA180>  at scbus2 target 0 lun 0 (pass2,ada2)
<HDS722020ALA330 RSD HUA JKAOA31E>  at scbus3 target 0 lun 0 (pass3,ada3)
<TOSHIBA MD04ACA500 FP1A>		  at scbus4 target 0 lun 0 (pass4,ada4)
<TOSHIBA MD04ACA500 FP2A>		  at scbus4 target 1 lun 0 (pass5,ada5)
<TOSHIBA MD04ACA500 FP2A>		  at scbus5 target 0 lun 0 (pass6,ada6)
<Hitachi HDT721032SLA380 ST2OA39D>  at scbus5 target 1 lun 0 (pass7,ada7)

In looking at dmesg for information on ada5 and ada6, I came up with the following.
dmesg | grep 'ada[56]'
ada5 at ata0 bus 0 scbus4 target 1 lun 0
ada5: <TOSHIBA MD04ACA500 FP2A> ATA8-ACS SATA 3.x device
ada5: Serial Number 6567K3YFFS9A
ada5: 150.000MB/s transfers (SATA, UDMA5, PIO 8192bytes)
ada5: 4769306MB (9767539055 512 byte sectors)
ada5: Previously was known as ad1
ada6 at ata1 bus 0 scbus5 target 0 lun 0
ada6: <TOSHIBA MD04ACA500 FP2A> ATA8-ACS SATA 3.x device
ada6: Serial Number 55T7K38MFS9A
ada6: 150.000MB/s transfers (SATA, UDMA5, PIO 8192bytes)
ada6: 4769306MB (9767539055 512 byte sectors)
ada6: Previously was known as ad2
GEOM: ada5: corrupt or invalid GPT detected.
GEOM: ada5: GPT rejected -- may not be recoverable.
GEOM: ada6: corrupt or invalid GPT detected.
GEOM: ada6: GPT rejected -- may not be recoverable.

per cyberjock's thread I also attempted a recovery on the partition table for the two drives
gpart recover ada5
gpart: arg0 'ada5': Invalid argument

gpart recover ada6
gpart: arg0 'ada6': Invalid argument

per another thread Dusan suggested that the partition information could be copied from a known good drive to the others. I haven't attempted this yet and am looking for help because I really don't want to cause any further issues and I want to recover my data. Can someone knowledgeable of this type of situation please explain why what I did created such an issue and how I can correct this? If it helps I do know the gptids for the other two drives. I have not written any data out to these drives since this occurred so I feel as though all of the data should be perfectly fine if I can just find a way to make the pool happy again.
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Jun 28, 2014
Is it possible one of your disk controllers can't handle >2TB drives, and the other one can? Maybe you need to get those 5TB drives onto the other controller.


Not strong, but bad
Sep 12, 2014
And you are trying to run a 23TB (RAW) pool on 4GB of RAM........

How exactly do you have 7 drives hooked up to a board that only has 4 SATA connectors? You're leaving out a lot of critical information needed to help resolve your issue.
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Mar 18, 2016
Thanks for the replies. I understand that my system is well below what is recommended. This system was constructed many years ago well before any specific recommendations came about for FreeNAS. I did eventually want to add space and added the 3 additional 5TB drives. As I mentioned initially I have been running for about three years in this exact configuration. No changes at all except for a couple upgrades to FreeNAS itself. The 4 2TB drives are connected to two Rosewill RC-211 PCI Express to SATA adapters. I've been using these adapters since 2011 and the 2TB drives have been connected to those since that time. The 5TB drives have always been connected directly to the motherboard. I believe at the time of install I had to update the BIOS to allow the system to see the 5TB drives. In my original post I didn't focus much on the hardware as I knew it would raise an eyebrow or two, but more importantly this system has been very stable for me for years and I didn't touch anything software or hardware wise to trigger this issue...I simply connected the 5TB drives to different SATA connections on the motherboard. The 2TB drives did not get inadvertently swapped on the PCI Express to SATA adapters.

Was there any other information that I can provide that would be beneficial?
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Documentation Engineer
Nov 14, 2014


FreeNAS Generalissimo
Oct 15, 2013


Feb 1, 2012
The use of SATA expanders is also not recommended for use on FreeNAS.
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