Resource icon

OpenVPN in tap/bridge mode in iocage jail

Hello, since there are a lot of howtos how to make OpenVPN work with a tun device in routing mode here I want to share how to make OpenVPN work with a tap device in bridged mode in an iocage jail. I hope I did not forget a step.

openvpn in a FreeBSD iocage jail
  • prepare your jail
    This was done with FreeNAS 11.1-U1
    iocage jail was created on the shell using FreeBSD 11.1-RELEASE
    I work with ports and use portmaster and portsnap.
    jail options I am using are
    ip4_addr:vnet0|192.168.1.XXX/24 # give it a vaild IP address
    defaultrouter:   # set to your standard gateway

  • install openvpn
    portmaster security/openvpn

    add ovpn to /etc/rc.conf
    sysrc openvpn_enable="YES"
    sysrc openvpn_if="tap"

  • create keys
    I used parts of the following howto

    open the easyrsa config file
    nano /usr/local/etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/vars
    and edit anything you like to accomodate your needs; i did change:
    set_var EASYRSA_REQ_PROVINCE	"yourprovince"
    set_var EASYRSA_REQ_CITY		"yourcity"
    set_var EASYRSA_REQ_ORG		 "yourorganisation"
    set_var EASYRSA_REQ_EMAIL	   ""
    set_var EASYRSA_REQ_OU		  "IT"
    set_var EASYRSA_KEY_SIZE		2048
    set_var EASYRSA_CA_EXPIRE	   3650
    set_var EASYRSA_CERT_EXPIRE	 3650

    change to the bourne shell (`sh`) to make the easyrsa script work.
    you can see all commands with
    ./easyrsa.real help
    ./easyrsa.real help COMMAND
    ./easyrsa.real help options

    initialize key infrastructure
    ./easyrsa.real init-pki
    build certificate authority
    ./easyrsa.real build-ca
    build server certificate
    ./easyrsa.real build-server-full openvpn-server nopass
    check if successful
    ./easyrsa.real show-cert openvpn-server
    generate diffie hellman parameters
    ./easyrsa.real gen-dh
    build client certificate
    ./easyrsa.real build-client-full <name> # I use as name the device I want to use it with, so I can revoke it if I loose it.

  • move keys
    With the files created, move the key’s to their destination.

    The files of importance are:
    In pki/:
    dh.pem - Diffie Hellman parameters. Needed by server.
    ca.crt - Root CA certificate. Needed by server and all clients.

    In pki/issued/:
    openvpn-server.crt - Server certificate. Needed by server.
    <name>.crt - Client certificate. Needed by client.

    In pki/private/ [These are secret]:
    openvpn-server.key - Server key. Needed by server.
    <name>.key - Client key. Needed by client.
    ca.key - Root CA key. Needed by key signing machine.

    So the following keys should be moved to the server:

    Make a directory for the keys in the openvpn directory:
    mkdir /usr/local/etc/openvpn/keys

    copy the server keys:
    cp pki/dh.pem \
    pki/ca.crt \
    pki/issued/openvpn-server.crt \
    pki/private/openvpn-server.key \

    since openvpn 2.4 you also need a ta.key inside the keys directory (and inside the .ovpn profile)
    openvpn --genkey --secret /usr/local/etc/openvpn/keys/ta.key

    and from the following create the ovpn profile:

    I just made a new folder to store my *.ovpn profile files, but it does not matter, since those will be moved to the clients later.
    nano /usr/local/etc/openvpn/keys/ovpn/<name>.ovpn
    remote <> 1194
    proto udp
    dev tap
    resolv-retry infinite
    compress lz4-v2
    verb 3
    cipher AES-256-CBC
    tun-mtu 1500
    key-direction 1
    remote-cert-tls server
    mssfix 1400
    insert ta.key here (same for all clients)
    insert ca.crt here (same for all clients)
    insert client cert
    insert client key (protected by passphrase)

    move the ovpn profile to your device that should connect and import it into the client application (which is the openvpn gui on windows in my case)
    for iOS devices, you might need to encode the keys in another way.
    on OSX i had to remove compress lz4-v2 and cipher AES-256-CBC to make it work in Tunnelblick

  • create up and downscript for handling creation of bridge
    this will raise a bridge when starting the ovpn server with the correct interfaces. ${dev} will automatically be replaced by the device ovpn creates.
    cd /usr/local/etc/openvpn/

    # Setup Ethernet bridge
    ifconfig bridge0 create
    ifconfig bridge0 addm vnet0 #this has to be the name of the virtual device and can differ. epair0b is also possible, check with ifconfig
    ifconfig bridge0 addm ${dev}
    ifconfig bridge0 inet # the IP of your ovpn jail!
    ifconfig ${dev} up
    ifconfig bridge0 up

    ifconfig bridge0 destroy

  • edit openvpn config
    nano /usr/local/etc/openvpn/openvpn.conf
    I adjusted following values, be sure to modify the server-bridge parameter to your network and pick a IP-range that is not in your DHCP range to avoid IP address collisions:
    port 1194
    proto udp
    dev tap
    ca /usr/local/etc/openvpn/keys/ca.crt
    cert /usr/local/etc/openvpn/keys/openvpn-server.crt
    dh /usr/local/etc/openvpn/keys/dh.pem
    ifconfig-pool-persist ipp.txt
    # first is the gateway (the same as the vnet interface has; netmask; IP-range start; IP-range stop)
    keepalive 10 120
    tls-auth /usr/local/etc/openvpn/keys/ta.key 0
    cipher AES-256-CBC
    compress lz4-v2
    push "compress lz4-v2"
    user nobody
    group nobody
    status openvpn-status.log
    log /var/log/openvpn.log
    verb 3
    explicit-exit-notify 1
    up /usr/local/etc/openvpn/
    down /usr/local/etc/openvpn/
    # script-security so the scripts can be started
    script-security 2
    tun-mtu 1500
    mssfix 1400
    remote-cert-tls client

    well, then let's start this thing up
    service openvpn start
    when I started the service the first time up first none, then on second try 256 tap devices where created. I had to restart FreeNAS to reset all tap devices and on the second try everything worked (also consistently after reboots).

  • configure router/firewall
    check that traffic on UDP 1194 is allowed and forwarded to your ovpn jail.

voilá, your clients should now be able to connect to your network.
If you have any feedback for improvements, please do so.
First release
Last update
0.00 star(s) 0 ratings