TrueNAS SCALETrueNAS SCALE Version Documentation
This content follows the TrueNAS SCALE 23.10 (Cobia) releases. Use the Product and Version selectors above to view content specific to different TrueNAS software or major version.

Configuring SCALE Using the UI

  15 minute read.

Last Modified 2024-03-19 08:38 EDT
TrueNAS Enterprise

iXsystems TrueNAS Enterprise customers should contact iXsystems Support when their systems arrive to receive additional guidance on their next steps.

Customers who purchase iXsystems hardware or that want additional support must have a support contract to use iXsystems Support Services. The TrueNAS Community forums provides free support for users without an iXsystems Support contract.

iXsystems Customer Support
Support Portal
Telephone and Other Resources

All TrueNAS SCALE users should follow these instructions to complete their initial system set up and configuration.

Use the information mentioned in the installation preparation instructions overview article for your SCALE installation type (Enterprise, non-Enterprise,or home use) to configure your network, SMTP, or directory service settings.

Starting with SCALE Bluefin 22.12.0, root account logins are deprecated for security hardening and to comply with Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS). All TrueNAS users should create a local administrator account with all required permissions and begin using it to access TrueNAS. When the root user password is disabled, only an administrative user account can log in to the TrueNAS web interface.

TrueNAS SCALE plans to permanently disable root account access in a future release.

After a fresh install from an iso file, administrators log in with the admin account created during install and should no longer log in as the root user. After you log into SCALE with the administrator account you can begin to configure SCALE using the web interface.

Enterprise Licenses and Proactive Support

TrueNAS Enterprise

Applying Enterprise Licenses

TrueNAS SCALE Enterprise customers should contact iXsystems support to obtain license information for their TrueNAS system. To apply the license information, go to the System Settings > General screen and use the Update License option on the Support widget (system information card).

Setting up Proactive Support

TrueNAS SCALE Enterprise customers with Silver or Gold Coverage support contracts have the option to configure proactive support.

Customers with appropriate support contracts can configure Proactive Support after they apply their system license, and after acknowledging and signing the End User License Agreement (EULA).

The Support widget on the System Settings > General screen displays the Proactive Support option after you enter your system license.

Setting Up Networking

After installing the SCALE iso file, the SCALE installer provides the DHCP-assigned IP address for the web UI and displays it at the top of the Console Setup Menu screen. TrueNAS uses DHCP to assign the primary web UI IP address and provision the other required global network addresses. If you have more than one network interface card installed and connected to your network, you need to assign an IP address and configure it in SCALE.

TrueNAS uses DHCP to assign the IP address required to access the SCALE UI and displays it on the Console Setup Menu screen, and it sets the host name to truenas.

If you do not plan to use the DHCP-assigned network addresses provided by SCALE, identify your host and domain names, the static or fixed IP addresses you plan to assign to your network interface card(s), the default gateway, subnet mask(s), and the DNS name servers in your network.

TrueNAS Enterprise
For Enterprise systems, have your network information ready to provide iXsystems Support when they guide you through your configuration.
All other users should have their network information ready before starting to configure network settings. This makes the process go faster and reduces the risk of issues when you configure SCALE.

We recommend that only experienced administrators familiar with network configuration and the Console setup menu use it and that less experienced and knowledgeable system administrators use the SCALE UI to configure your network interfaces and other network configuration settings. The TrueNAS SCALE UI includes safety measures to prevent you from completely disrupting network connectivity for your TrueNAS SCALE if you make a mistake with network interface settings.

If you are unfamiliar with network services, devices, or configurations, you can find more information here to help guide you through this important and required configuration area.

TrueNAS Enterprise
You must disable failover in the UI on SCALE Enterprise HA systems to add or change any network setting. Complete network changes and test them, then re-enable failover.

Adding Network Interfaces

Multiple interfaces connected to a single TrueNAS system cannot be members of the same subnet.

You can combine multiple interfaces with Link Aggregation (LAGG) or a Network Bridge. Alternatively, you can assign multiple static IP addresses to a single interface by configuring aliases.

When multiple Network Interface Cards (NICs) connect to the same subnet, users might incorrectly assume that the interfaces load balance automatically. However, ethernet network topology allows only one interface to communicate at a time. Additionally, both interfaces must handle broadcast messages since they are listening on the same network. This configuration adds complexity and significantly reduces network throughput.

If you require multiple NICs on a single network for performance optimization, you can use a Link Aggregation (LAGG) configured for Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP). A single LAGG interface with multiple NICs appears as a single connection to the network.

While LACP is beneficial for larger deployments with many active clients, it might not be practical for smaller setups. It provides additional bandwidth or redundancy for critical networking situations. However LACP has limitations as it does not load balance packets.

On the other hand, if you need multiple IP addresses on a single subnet, you can configure one or more static IP aliases for a single NIC.

In summary, it is recommended to use LACP if you need multiple interfaces on a network. If you need multiple IP addresses, you can define aliases. Deviation from these practices might result in unexpected behavior.

For a detailed explanation of ethernet networking concepts and best practices for networking multiple NICs, you can refer to this discussion from National Instruments.

If your system includes more than one network interface card (NIC) connected to your internal network (wired to your router or Internet access point), you can add an interface in SCALE. DHCP is available for only a single interface; any other physical interfaces must be configured with static IP addresses.

You can also configure virtual network interfaces such as a bridge, link aggregate (LAGG), or virtual LAN (VLAN) interface.

You can use either the Console Setup Menu or SCALE UI to configure network interfaces. We recommend using the web UI to add or change network interfaces or aliases, set up link aggregate LAGG or virtual LAN VLAN interfaces, change or configure global network settings, or set up static IP addresses on the Network screen.

Adding Aliases or Static IP Addresses

Static IP addresses and aliases provide different support for various network applications.

TrueNAS Enterprise
SCALE Enterprise HA systems use a virtual IP (VIP) to maintain access to the UI even if the system fails over to the standby controller. This VIP address might experience a minor blip at failover, but you do not need to log in with the standby controller IP address to gain access to the UI after a failover.
You can configure a network interface with a static IP or add an alias IP address on the same screen in the SCALE UI. For more information on when to use an alias or a static IP address, see Managing Interfaces.

Setting Up Storage

TrueNAS SCALE requires at least one storage pool. We recommend creating the required pool and then planning the rest of your storage needs before you move on to adding sharing, container applications, virtual machines, or begin storing data. When planning your data storage, consider the type of data sharing you want to do, any container applications you might want to deploy, and how you want to organize stored data.

The storage creation process begins with creating a pool and then adding the datasets or zvols as needed. Creating your initial storage is explained here.

Setting the System Dataset

SCALE assigns the root parent dataset of the first created pool as the system dataset. If your system has enough disks to add more pools, you can change the system dataset to a different root parent dataset for another pool.

Setting Up Shares

After setting up your system storage, you can configure data sharing using one of the sharing protocols available in SCALE.

For more information on configuring data sharing and the three built-in share types available in SCALE:

Share TypePurpose
SMB sharesUsed for Windows shares and also to set up deprecated AFP sharing.
NFS sharesUsed for Linux-based shares.
iSCSI sharesUsed for block shares.

Configuring System Services

Services you need to configure and enable are based on those you want to deploy on your SCALE system. All SCALE systems should enable SSH service as part of the initial UI configuration.

TrueNAS Enterprise
Enterprise or SCALE systems with large numbers of disks should also enable SMART service and configure SMART testing. SCALE Enterprise HA systems should enable and configure the failover service.

Configure and enable these services based on your SCALE system needs:

  • SSH service

    Set this service to allow SSH login for administration users (admin or, if also enabled, the root user) on all SCALE systems.

  • SMART service and SMART tests

    SMART service and tests are important for systems with large numbers of disks. Managing systems with large numbers of disks can present challenges when determining the disk with issues if SMART service and testing is not set up.

  • Failover service on SCALE Enterprise High Availability (HA) systems

    The failover service enables an HA system to fail over to the standby system controller after a disruption to the primary controller.
    This service is not included on non-Enterprise and non-HA systems.

    Enterprise customers should not make changes to failover settings or the service on their own except when disabling failover to make changes to network settings. Contact iXsystems Support for assistance before making any changes to other failover settings.

When you add data sharing the system prompts you to enable the appropriate sharing service as part of the configuration and set up process.

If your installation includes a UPS, configure and enable the UPS service as well.

Setting Up SMART Testing

All systems can take advantage of the SMART service and testing if your disks support this service. Disks that do not support SMART testing do not display the option to set up testing.

See Managing SMART Tests for information on running or managing scheduled SMART tests or Managing Disks for more information on running a manual test from a selected disk.

Setting Up Backup Solutions

After completing your initial system configuration and before you begin day-to-day operations, we recommend you configure the system and data storage backup. These include:

  • Save the system configuration file, described here.
  • Save or create a new boot environment to use as a restore point if system issues cause you to lose access to the SCALE UI.
  • Download a system debug to capture system information to use as a comparison against future debug files. To download a system debug file, go to System Settings > Advanced and click Save Debug to begin the download.

Keep both the system configuration file and the initial system debug file in a safe location where important files are regularly backed up. You can use the boot environment in an SSH session to restore your system to the point where you completed your system configuration and then import data or pools to recover stored data.

TrueNAS Enterprise

For Enterprise customers with High Availability (HA) systems, the HA restore process requires recovering both controllers. Contact iXsystems Support for assistance before attempting to recover your system. If you choose to restore access to controller 1 and the SCALE UI, contact iXsystems Support to get assistance with properly recovering your second controller.

Enterprise HA customers should not start issuing CLI commands to recover the system!

Contact iXsystems Support after you restore access to controller 1 to request further assistance and before taking actions that could disrupt or damage system access further and result in requiring a complete reinstall to recover.

Customers who purchase iXsystems hardware or that want additional support must have a support contract to use iXsystems Support Services. The TrueNAS Community forums provides free support for users without an iXsystems Support contract.

iXsystems Customer Support
Support Portal
Telephone and Other Resources

Data Storage Backup Solutions

After saving both files, we recommend you set up snapshots, remote replication, or add a cloud storage provider service and set up a cloud sync task to back up your storage data.

TrueNAS SCALE provides options to back up your stored data:

  • Snapshots and periodic snapshot tasks
  • Replication to another system (remote replication)
  • Cloud storage provider access and cloud sync tasks

You can take single snapshots or [schedule periodic snapshot tasks](/scaletutorials/dataprotection/periodicsnapshottasksscale/ to capture changes to stored data without the storage overhead that comes with backing up through data replication, or you can use one of the replication options SCALE provides.

Another data storage backup option is to create an account with a cloud storage service provider, then let SCALE manage the backups. Use the Backup Credentials screen Cloud Credentials to add authentication credentials for a supported cloud service and then schedule a Cloud Sync Tasks to regularly back up your storage data to the cloud.

Checking System Alert Settings and Services

You can view system alerts, configure the alert service and settings you want to use, and enter an email account to receive alerts from SCALE from the Alerts dropdown panel accessed by clicking the alert icon on the top toolbar.

The alert icon on the top toolbar displays a red circle with a number in it if SCALE encounters a configuration error or exceeds a threshold that you set (such as a temperature or a usage level). The Alerts icon number indicates the number of new alerts that have occurred. Click on the alert icon to open the Alerts dropdown panel.

The Alerts dropdown panel also includes a gear Settings icon that provides access to the alert settings configuration screen and a system email account screen where you enter the address to receive messages when a system event triggers an alert.

  • Click Alert Settings to configure an alert service such as PagerDuty or customize alert settings that determine the threshold for trigging an alert.
  • Click Email to assign an email address to receive system alert notifications.
TrueNAS Enterprise
The Alert Settings screen includes access to the Enterprise HA setting options to customize the event thresholds that produce alerts or send emails.

Setting Up Directory Services

TrueNAS SCALE allows you to configure an Active Directory or LDAP server to handle authentication and authorization services, domain, and other account settings. SCALE allows you to configure either directory server but not both.

We do not recommended that you switch between directory services. This can result in configuration issues that could disrupt your system!

However, it is possible to change from either directory service to the other. If you want to migrate from LDAP to Active Directory, you must disable LDAP in SCALE and then remove the current directory server settings. To change from Active Directory to LDAP, use the Leave Domain option and disable the service before attempting to configure and enable LDAP.

TrueNAS Enterprise
iXsystems Support can assist Enterprise customers with configuring directory service settings in SCALE with the information customers provide, but they cannot configure customer Active Directory system settings.
Non-Enterprise users can find support for configuring directory services in the TrueNAS Documentation Hub tutorials or in the community forums.

Using Enclosure Management

TrueNAS Enterprise

For TrueNAS Enterprise customers with compatible hardware, the TrueNAS SCALE main Dashboard displays an image of the TrueNAS system server on the System Information widget. Click on the image to open the View Enclosure screen, or select the System Settings > Enclosure option on the main menu navigation panel.

The View Enclosure screen provides details about the system disks, the pools and VDEVs they are in, the hardware, and the disk status. Click on a drive to view the disk details. If the TrueNAS system has an expansion shelf, an image of the expansion shelf populated with disks also displays.

If using SCALE on servers not provided by TrueNAS, the System Information widget on the Dashboard displays the TrueNAS SCALE logo and the System Settings > Enclosure option does not exist on the menu navigation panel.

Using Applications in SCALE

SCALE provides a list of applications you can deploy on the Apps > Available Applications screen.

See the Apps tutorials for procedures for generically deploying and managing apps, App catalogs, custom apps, and specific app deployment and notes.

Updating SCALE

You can update your system with an iso file using the system administration console or an update file installed through the SCALE UI.

There are a few ways to find available updates for your instance of TrueNAS SCALE:

  • The main Dashboard > System Information widget alerts you when a SCALE update is available to download and install. Click the update option to open the System Settings > Updates screen.
  • Go to System Settings > Updates to check if an update is available.

For all update options and procedures using the SCALE UI see Updating SCALE.

Always save the system configuration file and save a new boot environment for your current release and configuration before updating to either a new incremental or full release.

It is also good practice to download a fresh debug file before and after a system update.

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